Philosophy is a field of study which deals with general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, values, existence, knowledge, mind, and language. Questions like “what is the ultimate reality”? or “what is our purpose to live”? These types of questions are often presented as issues to be investigated or resolved. Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BCE) is thought to have invented the word. Questioning, critical dialogue, logical reasoning, and formal presentation are all examples of philosophical processes. A practitioner of Philosophy is known as a Philosopher. Academic philosophy and other disciplines became professionalized and specialized in the nineteenth century as a result of the growth of modern research universities. Since then, various fields of study that were once part of philosophy, such as psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics, have become separate academic disciplines.
The following are the Branches of Philosophy:
It is concerned with the creation and appreciation of beauty, as well as the nature of art, beauty and taste, enjoyment, emotional values, and perception. It’s more specifically described as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, also known as sentiment and taste judgments. Art theory, literary theory, film theory, and music theory are its four main divisions.
Ethics is also known as moral philosophy. It discusses what makes for good and bad conduct, right and wrong morals, and good and evil values. Its main topics of investigation are how to live a healthy life and how to define moral values. It also entails determining whether there is a better way to live or a universal moral principle, and, if so, how we think about it. Normative ethics, meta-ethics, and applied ethics are the three major divisions of ethics.
Metaphysics is the study of the most fundamental aspects of life, including nature, time, objects and their properties, wholes and pieces, events, processes, and causation, and the mind-body relationship. Cosmology, or the study of the entire universe, and ontology, or the study of being, are two branches of metaphysics. The primary argument is between realism, which asserts that entities exist independently of their mental perceptions, and idealism, which asserts that reality is constructed or otherwise immaterial.
The branch of philosophy known as epistemology is concerned with the study of knowledge. Epistemologists look at things like perceptual experience, reason, recollection, and testimony as potential sources of knowledge. They also look at the nature of truth, belief, justification, and rationality, among other things. The debate between empiricism and rationalism is one of the most well-known epistemological debates. Because, Empiricism emphasizes observational data obtained by sensory experience. Empiricism is linked to a posteriori knowledge, or knowledge acquired from experience (such as scientific knowledge), whereas Rationalism places emphasis on reason as a source of knowledge. The importance of rationality as a source of truth is emphasized in rationalism. A priori knowledge, which is independent of experience, is associated with rationalism (such as logic and mathematics).
Logic is the study of reasoning and argument. Logic became formal science because sound reasoning is an integral component of all sciences, social sciences, and humanities disciplines. Mathematical logic, philosophical logic, Modal logic, computational logic, and non-classical logics are all sub-fields of logic.
Other sub-fields include:
It is the study of government and individuals’ (or families’ and clans’) relationships with societies, including the state. It covers topics such as justice, law, property, and citizen rights and responsibilities or obligations of a citizen. Political philosophy, ethics, and aesthetics are traditionally linked.
Philosophy of Mind and Language:
The study of language’s meaning, origins, and use is known as linguistic philosophy. The nature of the mind and its relationship to the body is discussed in philosophy of mind, which is typified by debates between materialism and dualism. This division has recently been associated with cognitive science.
Philosophy of Religion:
Philosophy of religion is a philosophically neutral approach to questions about religion and religious ideas.
Philosophy of Science:
The foundations, methods, history, consequences, and purpose of science are all studied in science philosophy.
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This is all you need to know about philosophy as a subject. There are so many great philosophers of all time and I cannot write about every one of them, so I decided to include five of them in this article. And I am sure you must have heard some of the names before, so I am going to start with:
Aristotle is one of history’s most prominent and influential thinkers and teachers. His writings and theories on metaphysics, ethics, knowledge, and methodological inquiry are at the very heart of human thought. He was born in the northern part of ancient Greece. Apart from being a philosopher he was also a scientist. Nicomachean Ethics, Physics, Metaphysics, Politics, On the Soul, and Poetics are among his most important works.
Saint Thomas Aquinas:
He was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. In the scholasticism tradition, he was a hugely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist. The Disputed Questions on Truth (1256–1259), the Summa contra Gentiles (1259–1265), and the unfinished but hugely influential Summa Theologica, or Summa Theologiae, are his most well-known works.
Being born in Alopece, Socrates was a Greek philosopher from Athens who is regarded as one of the founders of Western philosophy as well as the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition. He is among the most famous figures in world history for his contributions to the development of ancient Greek philosophy which provided the foundation for all of Western Philosophy. He is known as the “Father of Western Philosophy”. One famous quote by him is “The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
René Descartes was a French-born philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who spent most of his professional life in the Dutch Republic, first serving in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces. He is well-known for establishing an important connection between geometry and algebra, allowing geometrical problems to be solved using algebraic equations.
David Hume was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, librarian, and essayist who is best known for his highly influential system for his empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism. David Hume’s philosophical works included A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40), An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751), An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1758), and Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.
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